Lucia Bodecchi, Ardore, sapienza e umiltà: osservazioni sul san Francesco di Dante 5-29
Summary. – The author underscores certain aspects of Dante's St Francis presented in The Divine Comedy, Canto XI, and particularly the themes of mystical love, humility and wisdom. The theme of love, seemingly overlooked, surfaces in some of the allusions: in the depiction of the Saint as burning Seraphim, and therefore, in the use of a metaphor already proper to mystical literature, in Francis' portrayal as one who, in joy and sweetness, is likened to the souls in heaven living of charity and joy, and above all, in the metaphor of marriage with poverty, an image involving the language of love, recalling the allegory of Christ's marriage with the Church, and leading to the interpretation of the choice of poverty as a mystical act of total love for God. Humility, apparently another disposition disregarded or nearly so by Dante, comes out in the description of Francis' obedience, which becomes the concrete realization of the virtue. Humility is besides linked to the subject of regality after the example of Christ. Francis is presented in the Canto as one of the greatest sages in keeping with the model of the biblical wisdom literature, for having grasped what the true good is and for having spent everything for it. He is therefore a symbol of internal freedom from every worry and greed, which, in the Comedy, is emblematic of an eminent spirituality.
Keywords: Francis of Assisi - Dante Alighieri – Seraphic ardour – mystical marriage -wisdom - humility - regality – obedience
Aleksander Horowski, Questione "De quolibet IV" di Alessandro di Hales 31-70
Sommario. - L'articolo ripercorre la storia delle scoperte relative alle questioni quodlibetali di Alessandro di Hales e alle loro – ancora solo frammentarie – edizioni. Si comprova la paternità della series IV delle questioni disputate "postquam fuit frater", all'interno della quale si trova il Quodlibet IV che viene pubblicato in edizione critica. Tra i temi affrontati in questa questione quodlibetale ci si sofferma sulla discussione relativa ai quattro sensi della Sacra Scrittura, inserendo la soluzione halesiana nel contesto della dottrina tradizionale e paragonandola al Tractatus Magistri Alexandri de significationibus et expositione Sacrarum Scripturarum.
Parole chiave: Alessandro di Hales - Teologia scolastica medievale - Esegesi medievale.
Summary. - The article retraces the history of the discoveries regarding the questions apropos of Alexander of Hales' Quodlibet and their editions, still only fragmentary. The paternity has been established of the Series IV of the disputed questions "postquam fuit frater" within which the Quodlibet IV is found, and it is published as a critical edition. Among the themes dealt with in this question of Quodlibet, more attention is paid to the four senses of the Sacred Scripture, inserting Alexander of Hales' solution into the context of the traditional doctrine and comparing it to the Tractatus Magistri Alexandri de significationibus et expositione Sacrarum Scripturarum.
Keywords: Alexander of Hales – Medieval scholastic theology – Medieval exegesis.
Joshua C. Benson, An Unedited Principium: "Fons sapientiae Verbum Dei in excelsis". Introduction and Text 71-100
Summary. - This essay provides an edition of the previously unedited Principium, or inaugural sermon, "Fons sapientiae Verbum Dei in excelsis." In a future essay in Collectanea Franciscana, the writer will argue that the sermon belongs to the Franciscan, John Pecham. The sermon clearly belongs to a master of theology at Paris, and must have been delivered between 1260-1326. Regardless of its author, the sermon is useful to scholars because it provides another edition of an inaugural sermon, a genre of medieval theological literature that is becoming better known. The sermon is also useful because it witnesses to the early reception of Bonaventure's De reductione artium ad theologiam, upon which this inaugural sermon heavily draws for its description of the arts and sciences. The sermon edited here exists in only one known manuscript, Vatican Burghesiani 157, an important manuscript for Franciscan research, because it also contains one of only two known witnesses to Bonaventure's inaugural sermon, which the author is also currently editing and hopes to publish soon. The second half, or resumption of Bonaventure's inaugural sermon, is what scholars have better known as the De reductione artium ad theologiam, a thesis the present author argued in an earlier publication in Franciscan Studies 2009.
Keywords: Medieval theology - Inaugural sermons - St. Bonaventure.
Sommario. - Si pubblica l'inedito Principium, o discorso inaugurale, "Fons sapientiae Verbum Dei in excelsis", di un maestro di teologia parigino pronunciato tra il 1260 e il 1326. In un prossimo saggio l'a. discuterà l'appartenza del sermone al francescano Giovanni Pecham. Il discorso è utile perché fornisce una nuova edizione di discorso inaugurale, genere di letteratura teologica medievale che si inizia a conoscere meglio, e come testimone della sollecita ricezione del De reductione artium ad theologiam di Bonaventura, al quale si rifà strettamente nella descrizione delle arti e delle scienze. Il semone esiste in un unico manoscritto noto, il Vaticano Borghesiano 157, importante per la ricerca francescana poiché contiene anche una delle due sole testimonianze di discorsi inaugurali di Bonaventura, che l'a. pensa pure di pubblicare presto. La seconda metà, o ripresa del discorso inaugurale di Bonaventura, consiste in ciò che gli studiosi conoscono meglio come De reductione artium ad theologiam, come l'a. ha dimostrato in una pubblicazione in Franciscan Studies del 2009.
Parole Chiave: Teologia medievale - Discorsi inaugurali - San Bonaventura.
Giovanni Lauriola, Francesco della Marca, Commentarius in Librum Sententiarum I, dd. 29-48 101-144
Summary. - As pearls are unknotted from a necklace, the author, in concomitance with the centenary VII of the death of Duns Scotus (1308-2008) and the centenary VIII of the beginning of the Franciscan Order (1209-2009), brings out through this study the twenty distinctions that Francesco d'Appignano makes in completing the Commentary on Peter Lombard's First Book of the Sentences. The general theme is a matter of high theological speculation, which is not much known in modern literature. Along with the specific questions, some aspects of the Trinitarian mystery especially vis-à-vis ad intra and ad extra relationships are also discussed. The main themes revolve around the divine Persons in themselves and in their relationship with things, predestination, the glory of the blessed and the condition of the damned, divine will with regard to the human, creation of the world, divine ideas, contingency of things and the like. The subjects discussed are à la classical framework of the medieval question, and they are methodologically brought together in thematic groups and presented more systematically than chronologically in order to better help the modern reader understand a highly prolific thought, and at the same time clarify several aspects of faith in the specific mystery of the Trinity.
Keywords: Medieval theology - Trinitarian theology - Francis of Appignano - Eternal human destiny.
Sergio Pagano, Inediti vaticani su san Lorenzo da Brindisi 145-155
Sommario. - Nell'estate del 1611 san Lorenzo da Brindisi (1559-1619) si trovava nel territorio dell'impero per la visita ai conventi cappuccini sorti a seguito della sua missione nei primi anni del '600, e seguiva da vicino, per incarico pontificio, il sorgere della Lega cattolica in opposizione all'Unione Evangelica degli Stati protestanti. L'articolo riporta due lettere spedite dal cappuccino nell'ottobre del 1611 da Monaco ai cardinali Scipione Borghese, segretario di stato, e Giovanni Garcia Millini, incaricato di una missione in Germania. Le due missive, finite inizialmente fuori luogo nell'Archivio Segreto Vaticano, risultano assenti dalla documentazione prodotta nella biografia di Arturo da Carmignano di Brenta e documentano particolari dei contrasti tra il duca di Monaco Massimiliano I e l'arcivescovo di Salisburgo Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau a proposito del commercio del sale.
Parole Chiave: Sacro Romano Impero - Secolo XVII - Lega cattolica - Guerra dei Trent'anni - San Lorenzo da Brindisi.
Summary. - In the summer of 1611 St Lawrence of Brindisi (1559-1619) was in the territory of the empire carrying out a canonical visit of the Capuchin friaries that sprang up in the wake of his mission in the first years of the century, and on pontifical mandate was closely following the creation of the Catholic League in opposition to the Protestant Evangelical Union.
The article cites two letters sent by the Capuchin in October 1611 from Munich to cardinals Scipione Borghese, the Secretary of State, and Giovanni Millini, then on a mission to Germany. The two missives, initially ended up amiss in the Archivio Segreto Vaticano, seem to be missing in the documentation in the biography of Arturo da Carmignano di Brenta and document particulars of the contrasts between the duke of Munich Maximillian I and the archbishop of Salzburg Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau regarding salt trade.
Keywords: Holy Roman Empire - XVII cent - Catholic League – Thirty Years' War – St Lawrence of Brindisi.
Vernon Wagner, The Eucharist: Sacrament and Sacrifice according to St. Lawrence of Brindisi 157-186
Summary. – Lawrence considers the Eucharist in its twofold reality, both as the Sacrament of the Real Presence and the Sacrifice of the Mass. In these excerpts gleaned from his writings we are impressed especially by the clarity of the thoughts proceeding from his mind as well as the ardor which emanates from his heart. The Eucharist is the great miracle of God's power, wisdom, and love. He vigorously combats the errors which have arisen in the course of time, first of all, with regard to the Real Presence by demonstrating that Christ's promise and institution of the Eucharist cannot be taken in a merely metaphorical sense. He then proceeds to establish the true sacrificial nature of the Mass as the unbloody representation of the bloody sacrifice on the cross. At the supper Christ instituted the sacrament; on the cross he offered in sacrifice what he had instituted at the supper in sacrament. The Sacrifice of the Mass, accordingly, is situated essentially in the consecration which makes the victim present on the altar and which is followed by the consumption of the victim in communion.
Key Words: St. Lawrence of Brindisi - Eucharist - Real Presence - Mass - Theology - Sacraments.
Sommario. - San Lorenzo considera l'Eucaristia nella duplice realtà di sacramento della presenza reale e di sacrificio della messa. In questi brani spigolati dai suoi scritti si resta colpiti soprattutto per la chiarezza dei concetti che escono dalla sua mente e dall'ardore che promana dal suo cuore. L'eucaristia è il grande miracolo della potenza, della sapienza e dell'amore di Dio. Lorenzo combatte energicamente gli errori sorti nel corso del tempo, innanzitutto a proposito della presenza reale, dimostrando che la promessa di Cristo e l'istituzione dell'eucaristia non possono essere presi un senso puramente metaforico. Egli procede quindi a stabilire la vera natura di sacrificio della messa come rappresentazione incruenta del sacrificio cruento della croce. Nella cena Cristo istituí il sacramento, sulla croce offrí in sacrificio ciò che aveva istituito come sacrificio nella cena. Il sacrificio della messa, di conseguenza, si colloca essenzialmente nella consacrazione che rende presente la vittima sull'altare ed è seguita dalla consumazione della vittima nella comunione.
Parole Chiave: San Lorenzo da Brindisi - Eucaristia - Presenza reale - Mass - Teologia - Sacramenti.
Pietro Paolo da Ceriana, Breve notizia storico morale del Gran Parà e Amazonas (I), a cura di Claudio Bonizzi 187-257; II, 571-644
Summary. – In La Breve notizia storico morale del Gran Parà e Amazonas the Capuchin missionary Pietro Paolo da Ceriana outlines a significant chapter of mid-nineteenth-century mission history contextualised in today's Brazilian states of Amazonas and Pará. Written with the intention of justifying the conduct of the missionary, the notizia indeed proves to be very useful for an in-depth knowledge of the mission he was opening. The immensely vast territory is a kingdom of waters through which one moves about with canoes and sailboats, while the steamboat had then just made its first appearance in the region. The settlements are found along the riverbanks and the inhabitants are few; the native popula¬tion are often tempted to return to the forest and the main towns did not yet have the name with which they are known today. The new laws on the missions emanated by the Brazilian imperial government evidenced a contrast between the interests of evangelisation and the «civilisation» of the natives, while the «civilised», the Portuguese and those of mixed race were reluctant to admit the natives into their ranks. From the ecclesiastical standpoint there existed the only one diocese of Belém, extending from the mouths of the Amazon river to the borders of Peru and Colombia, with a clergy, secular and religious, decidedly insufficient.
Keywords: Pietro Paolo da Ceriana - Brazil - Missions – Capuchin Missions – XIX cent.
Marianna Iafelice, La stimmatizzazione di san Francesco in alcuni frontespizi del XV e XVI secolo 259-292
Summary. - The author scrutinises some select 15th–16th century frontispieces depicting the scene of the stigmatisation of St Francis of Assisi. The study brings into bold relief three recurring typologies employed by the incisors of the period: 1) St Francis who receives the stigmata in a wood, 2) with a church at the back, and 3) with a town in the backdrop. This analysis further evidences the then prevalent iconographic models, showing how close the relationship of the sketch was with the work or with the different editions of the same work, as the separate reuse of the matrixes both for sketches and edgings was frequent in the same printing press as well as in others. And finally the analysis brings to the fore a whole series of underlying data: how a formal evolution of the frontispiece occurred in the course of years, and how with the abandoning of the early forms of Gothic characters the formulation and the positioning of the title got modified within the borders. From this analysis, therefore, it emerges how the book, particularly the illustrated one, becoming secularised, has effectively carried out progressively a basic graphic synthesis of the messages of the Order.
Keywords: Publishing industry – publishing religious books - illustrated book - frontispieces – Stigmatisation of St Francis – iconographic models.
Maria Camilla Pagnini, Ragionamenti a margine dell'architettura francescana nel territorio pistoiese 293-312
Summary. – The first Franciscan foundation in Pistoia goes back to the years immediately following Francis of Assisi's death. The construction of the large friary church got underway in 1289; in the beginning of the following century two female monasteries with dependence on the St Francis Friary would also be established there. Their edificial traits will become the distinctive features of the Franciscan buildings inside the town. The loci of the Franciscan family situated on the periphery of the inhabited area sparked off the growth of whole urban sections while the pastoral activities of the friars got closely interwoven with the life of the town. The Franciscan foundations in the territory of Pistoia did not stop with the entry of the Conventual friars and they were to alter some of their foundational strategies. In the 15th century the Observant friars, for example, got established in Giaccherino, situated on a hill outside the town's inhabited areas. It was a simple hideaway characterised by a "middle-tone" architecture devoid of all useless decorations and superfluities. The typology of the hermitage was also employed in the two Capuchin foundations because of which one can recognise in them an extreme simplicity resulting from the very poor building. The architectural constructions of the Franciscan family became for centuries a distinct trait of the urban scene and an organising element of broad traits of the rural landscape, as they hung in the balance between the representativeness bestowed on them through the participation of the laity who conferred on them an incessant action of artistic-architectural patronage and the constant search for paupertas.
Keywords: Pistoia - Franciscan – Foundational strategy - Architectural quality - Pastoral action - Hermitage.
Servus Gieben, Leonardo da Porto Maurizio incontra il brigante Lupo. Note iconografiche 313-322
Summary. - In May 1744 St Leonard of Port Maurice disembarked for Bastia in Corsica to undertake a penitential preaching. Bastia was then the scene of much violence and social upheaval, and the Saint hoped to bring about the pacification of the people. He began his preaching ministry at Mariana, where the inhabitants went to listen to him, armed with rifles, guns and daggers, but ended up embracing one another; the scene was repeated in other towns too. However, in Aleira the preaching seemed fated to fail as a brigand named Lupo remained stubborn. The mission ended; and before St Leonard left the place, he was seriously wounded when a ceiling collapsed on him and he had to be carried on a stretcher to a nearby town. Among the carriers there was also Lupo, who, finally convinced by the Saint's words, accepted to get reconciled. The meeting of Leonard of Port Maurice with the brigand Lupo is represented in a small picture of the Museo Francescano di Roma, described in its Catalogo of 1973.
Keywords: St Leonardo of Port Maurice - Corsica - Popular missions.
Cristina Cecchinelli, "Sulla scancía delli libri" Una ricerca su alfabetizzazione, lettura e commercio librario a Parma nell'epoca dei Farnese (1545-1731) 323-328